Transient synovitis is a benign, self-limiting condition that is diagnosed after the exclusion of more serious causes of acute hip pain in children. Although its etiology remains unclear, it is largely believed to be viral in nature. Transient synovitis typically presents as an acute onset of thigh pain with a limp or an unwillingness to bear weight. It can be distinguished from similar conditions by the absence of fever, as well as unremarkable bloodwork (WBC, CRP, ESR), radiographs, and hip aspiration. Conservative treatment and observation are the mainstay of management. Resolution of symptoms generally occurs by 1 week and may be accelerated by NSAIDs. Although numerous papers have emerged over the years with an effort to advance our understanding, many questions remain about its pathomechanics, etiology, and how to exclude other more serious conditions that present similarly.