Screening guidelines for non-AIDS defining cancers in HIV-infected individuals

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Purpose of reviewThe growing burden of non-AIDS defining malignancies (non-ADMs) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) highlights the need for cancer prevention and early detection. In this article, we propose screening guidelines for non-ADMs in PLWHA.Recent findingsA number of recent findings may help direct cancer screening guidelines in PLWHA. Screening for lung cancer with low-dose helical chest computerized tomography (LDCT) in the National Lung Screening Trial data demonstrated a decrease in lung cancer and all-cause mortality. Recent studies have demonstrated a favorable experience among PLWHA with liver transplantation. Overdiagnosis is common with breast and prostate cancer screening. Anal cancer rates were substantially higher for HIV-infected MSM, other men and women than for HIV-uninfected individuals.SummaryScreening recommendations for the general population can be applied to PLWHA patients for breast, colon and prostate cancer. Screening for lung cancer with LDCT could be considered in PLWHA at risk. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases screening recommendations with biennial ultrasonography may be applied to at-risk PLWHA for hepatocellular carcinoma. All HIV-infected adults should be offered anal cancer screening as part of clinical care at specialized centres.

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