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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rat umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) from Wharton’s jelly on dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC)–induced chronic pancreatitis (CP) and subsequent pancreatic fibrosis in rats.A rat model of CP induced by DBTC was used. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control, DBTC, DBTC + UCMSCs, and control + UCMSC groups. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were administered intravenously on day 5 after the administration of DBTC. On days 14 and 28, the rats were evaluated morphologically and biochemically. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the pancreatic tissues of different groups were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The activation of pancreatic stellate cells was estimated by immunochemistry and Western blot analysis of α-smooth muscle actin.Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were detected in inflamed pancreatic tissues. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell treatment improved the histological scores and alleviated the fibrosis of pancreas samples, The expression of cytokines in the DBTC + UCMSC group was significantly lower than that in the DBTC group. Also, pancreatic stellate cell activation was inhibited by UCMSC treatment.Xenogeneic transplantation of UCMSCs is a novel approach for the treatment of CP and subsequent fibrosis. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells may be a promising therapeutic intervention for human CP in the future.