Modern management of hemorrhoidal disease.

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Complaints secondary to hemorrhoidal disease have been treated by health care providers for centuries. Most symptoms referable to hemorrhoidal disease can be managed nonoperatively. When symptoms do not respond to medical therapy, procedural intervention is recommended. Surgical hemorrhoidectomy is usually reserved for patients who are refractory to or unable to tolerate office procedures. This article reviews the pathophysiology of hemorrhoidal disease and the most commonly used techniques for the nonoperative and operative palliation of hemorrhoidal complaints.

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