Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome Associated With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoid Disorders: A Retrospective Study of 18 Cases

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Few studies have examined the occurrence of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We report here a series of 18 patients with MCNS occurring among 13,992 new cases of NHL. We analyzed the clinical and pathologic characteristics of this association, along with the response of patients to treatment, to determine if this association relies on a particular disorder. The most frequent NHLs associated with MCNS were Waldenström macroglobulinemia (33.3%), marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (27.8%), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (22.2%). Other lymphoproliferative disorders included multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. In 4 patients MCNS occurred before NHL (mean delay, 15 mo), in 10 patients the disorders occurred simultaneously, and in 4 patients MCNS was diagnosed after NHL (mean delay, 25 mo). Circulating monoclonal immunoglobulins were present in 11 patients. A nontumoral interstitial infiltrate was present in renal biopsy specimens from 3 patients without significant renal impairment. Acute kidney injury resulting from tubular lesions or renal hypoperfusion was present in 6 patients. MCNS relapse occurred more frequently in patients treated exclusively by steroid therapy (77.8%) than in those receiving steroids associated with chemotherapy (25%). In conclusion, MCNS occurs preferentially in NHL originating from B cells and requires an aggressive therapeutic approach to reduce the risk of MCNS relapse.

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