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This review will focus on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of celiac disease (CD). Given an increasing awareness of gluten-related disorders, medical professionals of all varieties are encountering patients with a diagnosis of CD or who are thought to have food intolerance to gluten. The prevalence of CD among the general population is estimated to be 1% in Western nations, and there is growing evidence for underdiagnosis of the disease, especially in non-Western nations that were traditionally believed to be unaffected. The development of serologic markers specific to CD has revolutionized the ability both to diagnose and monitor patients with the disease. Additionally, understanding of the clinical presentations of CD has undergone a major shift over the past half century. Although it is well understood that CD develops in genetically predisposed subjects exposed to gluten, the extent of other environmental factors in the pathogenesis of the disease is an area of continued research. Currently, the main therapeutic intervention for CD is a gluten-free diet; however, novel nondietary agents are under active investigation. Future areas of research should also help us understand the relationship of CD to other gluten-related disorders.