Long-term clinical outcomes and cardiovascular events after carotid endarterectomy.

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BACKGROUNDLong-term atherosclerotic adverse events are anticipated in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA); however, their incidence and risk predictors remain unknown.METHODSA consecutive cohort of CEAs between 1/1/2000-12/31/2007 was analyzed. End points were any stroke, coronary event (myocardial infarction, coronary bypass, or stenting), vascular interventions for critical limb ischemia, aortic aneurysm or carotid disease, and death. Survival analysis and Cox regression models were used to identify clinical predictors.RESULTSA total of 1,136 CEAs (bilateral, 89; mean age, 71.2 ± 9.2 years; 56.5% male; 36.3% symptomatic, and 3.9% combined with coronary bypass) were performed during the study period with a mean clinical follow-up of 60 months (0-155 months). The postoperative combined stroke and/or death rate was 2.7% and 1.9% for asymptomatic and 4.1% for symptomatic patients. Five and 10-year risks of the end points were 7.2% and 16.1% for stroke, 18.4% and 31.5% for coronary interventions, 20.6% and 28.5% for major vascular interventions, and 25.8% and 50.1% for death. Statins conferred a significant protective effect for stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 0.53; P = 0.016) and death (HR, 0.66; P < 0.0001). Baseline vascular disease predicted future vascular interventions: aortic aneurysm (HR, 1.90; P = 0.003), peripheral arterial disease (HR, 2.03; P < 0.0001), and contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis ≥50% (HR, 4.61; P < 0.0001). Renal insufficiency predicted worse outcomes for all other end points (HR, 2.21; P = 0.023 for stroke; HR, 1.62; P = 0.008 for coronary events; HR, 2.38; P < 0.0001 for death).CONCLUSIONSPatients undergoing CEA continue to derive long-term low stroke rate benefit but still sustain major coronary events and require vascular interventions, indicating a need for more intensive medical treatment and rigorous follow-up.

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