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Chronic disorders such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus are often associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as cognitive decline. Once developed, psychological support is essential for improving the quality of life. This study is aimed at identifying impaired mental health in connection with these systemic metabolic disorders. A total of 34 patients were included in this cross-sectional study: 17 hypertensive individuals with a mean age of 59 ± 10 years, and 17 diabetic patients aged 54 ± 10 years. The following psychometric tests were used: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20). A large number of patients with high blood pressure or diabetes was associated with mental health problems (82% or 65%, respectively; p = 0.246). Affective disorder, especially moderate to severe depression, was seen mainly in diabetic patients (76%), whereas hypertensive individuals had higher prevalence of anxiety (64%). There was no cognitive impairment in this middle-aged population. This study shows a high proportion of depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus, reinforcing the importance of psychiatric support for appropriate control of these metabolic disorders.