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Park, B-S, Khamoui, AV, Brown, LE, Kim, D-Y, Han, K-A, Min, K-W, and An, G-H. Effects of elastic band resistance training on glucose control, body composition, and physical function in women with short- vs. long-duration type-2 diabetes. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1688–1699, 2016—This study examined whether the existing duration of type-2 diabetes influenced patient responses to progressive resistance training. Twenty-six women with type-2 diabetes were stratified into short- (3 ± 2 years; n = 12) or long-standing (10 ± 3 years; n = 14) disease groups. Patients participated in a high daily or high weekly frequency elastic band resistance training program that consisted of 2 daily sessions, 5 d·wk−1 for 12 weeks. Glucose control, body composition, and physical function were evaluated pre- and posttraining. No significant diabetes duration × training interactions were detected for blood markers of glucose control (p > 0.05); however, there were significant main effects of training driven by comparable improvements in both cohorts (hemoglobin A1c, −13 to 18%; fasting glucose, −23 to 31%; postprandial glucose, −36 to 40%; insulin, −34 to 40%; C-peptide, −38 to 51%; p ≤ 0.05). Anthropometrics and body composition were also favorably modified in both the groups after training (weight, −5 to 9%; body mass index, −6 to 9%; waist-to-hip ratio, −3 to 5%; percent fat, −14 to 20%; p ≤ 0.05). Likewise, indices of physical function improved in both the groups after training (bicep curl repetitions, +15–33%; sit-and-stand repetitions, +45–47%; p ≤ 0.05). A few exceptions were noted in which patients with long-standing disease demonstrated greater pre-to-post gains (p ≤ 0.05) in grip strength (+11–13%) and peak exercise time (+19%) and load (+21%) during graded exercise, whereas those with shorter disease duration did not. Overall, these data suggest that patients with a long history of diabetes respond positively to resistance training and in a manner comparable to their recently diagnosed counterparts. Therefore, current inactivity in patients with long-standing disease should not deter from beginning an exercise program.