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Cryptococcosis is an invasive mycosis caused by pathogenic encapsulated yeasts in the genus Cryptococcus. Cryptococcus gained prominence as a pathogen capable of widespread disease outbreaks in vulnerable populations. We have gained insight into the pathobiology of Cryptococcus, including the yeast' s capacity to adapt to environmental pressures, exploit new geographic environments, and cause disease in both immunocompromised and apparently immunocompetent hosts. Inexpensive, point-of-care testing makes diagnosis more feasible than ever. The associated worldwide burden and mortality remains unacceptably high. Novel screening strategies and preemptive therapy offer promise at making a sustained and much needed impact on this sugar-coated opportunistic mycosis.