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Diabetes mellitus is a frequent consequence of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Little is known about pancreatic endocrine function before the development of diabetes mellitus in CP, particularly in females, or those without calcific and/or alcoholic pancreatitis.Twenty-five nondiabetic adult patients with CP (19 female; mean [SE] age, 34.2 [2.4] years) were compared with 25 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Subjects underwent frequent sample intravenous glucose tolerance testing (FSIVGTT) and mixed meal tolerance testing (MMTT).Mean (SE) fasting glucose was higher in patients with CP (89.5 [2.3] mg/dL) than in controls (84.4 [1.2] mg/dL, P = 0.04). On MMTT, patients with CP had a higher area under the curve (AUC) glucose and AUC glucagon compared with controls (P ≤ 0.01). The AUC C-peptide was equivalent (P = 0.6) but stimulated C-peptide at 30 minutes was lower in patients with CP (P = 0.04). Mean insulin sensitivity index calculated from the FSIVGTT was lower in CP group, indicating reduced insulin sensitivity (P ≤ 0.01). Disposition index (insulin secretion adjusted for insulin sensitivity on FSIVGTT) was lower in patients with CP (P = 0.01).Patients with CP had higher fasting and MMTT glucose levels, without a compensatory increase in insulin secretion suggesting subtle early islet dysfunction. Our cohort had relative hyperglucagonemia and was less insulin sensitive than controls.