Decline of Neurologic Varicella Complications in Children During the First Seven Years After Introduction of Universal Varicella Vaccination in Germany, 2005–2011


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Abstract

Background:Universal varicella vaccination for 1-year-old children was introduced in Germany in 2004. We investigated changes in the incidence and type of varicella-associated neurologic complications in children during the first 7 years after universal vaccination recommendation.Methods:A surveillance study was conducted based on patients <17 years of age with an International Classification of Diseases (10th Revision) discharge diagnosis of varicella, annually reported by 22–29 pediatric hospitals in Bavaria, Germany, 2005 to 2011. Annual incidences were estimated and linear trend across years was assessed by Poisson regression models.Results:Of a total of 1263 varicella-associated pediatric hospitalizations, 228 children (18.1%) had neurologic complications (median age 4 years, interquartile range 2–7; 56% male). The most frequent neurologic complications were febrile convulsion (32.0% of 228 children, median age 3.0 years), varicella encephalitis or meningitis (28.9%; median age 4.5 years), syncope (13.2%; median age 7.0 years) and cerebral convulsion (11.0%; median age 4.0 years). Other complications included ataxia (3.1%), facial nerve palsy (2.6%) and cerebral vasculitis/infarction (1.8%). Neurologic complications showed a continuous decrease between 2005 and 2011, from an incidence of 2.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–3.6) per 100,000 children <17 years of age to 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.7–2.1; P < 0.001). In particular, a marked decline was observed among children up to 7 years of age, mainly because of a decrease in the number of febrile convulsions and encephalitis or meningitis.Conclusion:The incidence of varicella-associated neurologic complications in children decreased approximately by 60% during the first 7 years following the recommendation for universal vaccination.

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