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The impact of real-time electronic monitoring on antiretroviral therapy adherence warrants further study. We conducted an analysis of cohort participants that initially involved standard electronic adherence monitoring (EAM), followed by real-time EAM and home visits for sustained at least 48-h adherence interruptions. Immediately after switching between the two types of EAM, mean adherence among 112 participants increased from 84% to 93% and remained elevated for 6 months (P < 0.001). Real-time EAM is a promising approach for improving adherence.