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The purpose of this review is to outline and evaluate the most recent literature on the role of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases.High throughput molecular DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes enabled the analysis of complex microbial communities inhabiting the human urinary tract. Several recent studies have identified bacterial taxa of the urinary microbiome to impact urinary tract diseases including interstitial cystitis, urgency urinary incontinence or calcium oxalate stone formation. Furthermore, treatment of urinary tract infections by antibiotics globally impacts community profiles of the intestinal microbiota and might indirectly influence human health. Alternative treatment options like application of probiotics for the treatment of urinary tract infections are currently under investigation.The urinary microbiome and its relationship to urinary tract diseases is currently under comprehensive investigation. Further studies are needed to shed light on the role of commensal microbiota for urinary tract infections.