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Despite significant advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive care, sepsis remains the most common cause of death in intensive care units. We previously reported that molecular hydrogen (H2) acts as a therapeutic and preventive antioxidant. Here, we show that preadministration of H2-dissolved water (HW) suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock in mice. Drinking HW for 3 days before LPS injection prolonged survival in a mouse model of sepsis. The H2 concentration immediately increased in the liver but not in the kidney after drinking HW. The protective effects of the preadministration of HW on LPS-induced liver injury were examined. Twenty-four hours after LPS injection, preadministration of HW reduced the increase in both apoptosis and oxidative stress. Moreover, preadministration of HW enhanced LPS-induced expression of heme oxyganase-1 and reduced endothelin-1 expression. These results indicate the therapeutic potential of HW in preventing acute injury of the liver with attenuation of an increase in oxidative stress. HW is likely to trigger adaptive responses against oxidative stress.