Continuous noninvasive monitoring in the neonatal ICU


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Abstract

Purpose of reviewStandard hemodynamic monitoring such as heart rate and systemic blood pressure may only provide a crude estimation of organ perfusion during neonatal intensive care. Pulse oximetry monitoring allows for continuous noninvasive monitoring of hemoglobin oxygenation and thus provides estimation of end-organ oxygenation. This review aims to provide an overview of pulse oximetry and discuss its current and potential clinical use during neonatal intensive care.Recent findingsTechnological advances in continuous assessment of dynamic changes in systemic oxygenation with pulse oximetry during transition to extrauterine life and beyond provide additional details about physiological interactions among the key hemodynamic factors regulating systemic blood flow distribution along with the subtle changes that are frequently transient and undetectable with standard monitoring.SummaryNoninvasive real-time continuous systemic oxygen monitoring has the potential to serve as biomarkers for early-organ dysfunction, to predict adverse short-term and long-term outcomes in critically ill neonates, and to optimize outcomes. Further studies are needed to establish values predicting adverse outcomes and to validate targeted interventions to normalize abnormal values to improve outcomes.

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