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Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating condition affecting the limbs that can be induced by surgery or trauma. This condition can complicate recovery and impair one's functional and psychological well-being. The wide variety of terminology loosely used to describe CRPS in the past has led to misdiagnosis of this condition, resulting in poor evidence-base regarding the treatment modalities available and their impact. The aim of this review is to report on the recent progress in the understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CRPS and to discuss novel approaches in treating this condition.