Technological methods to measure adherence to antiretroviral therapy and preexposure prophylaxis

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Purpose of reviewThe WHO's Consolidated Guidelines (2016) call for research on improved methods to proactively monitor adherence and identify those individuals who have the greatest needs for adherence support. This review aims to elucidate the latest technologies available to measure adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy and preexposure prophylaxis against HIV infection and present their utility in various settings and populations.Recent findingsWithin the last few years, advances have been made in the features of existing technology to measure adherence (real-time electronic adherence measurements), additional approaches have been developed (digital medicine systems) and improved (short message service surveys), and point of care testing for pharmacokinetic measures are under development.SummaryTechnology advances in adherence measurement are promising for improved accuracy and, in some cases, the ability to intervene with adherence challenges in real time. This progress will greatly further our understanding of adherence behavior, as well as the ability to effectively link interventions with individuals who need them, thus maximizing the clinical and public health benefits of both antiretroviral therapy and preexposure prophylaxis.

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