|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Clinical guidelines recommend immediate initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy for all HIV-positive individuals. However, those guidelines are based on trials of relatively young participants.We included HIV-positive antiretroviral therapy–naive, AIDS-free individuals aged 50–70 years after 2004 in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. We used the parametric g-formula to estimate the 5-year risk of all-cause and non-AIDS mortality under (1) immediate initiation at baseline and initiation at CD4 count, (2) <500 cells/mm3, and (3) <350 cells/mm3. Results were presented separately for the general HIV population and for a US Veterans cohort with high mortality.The study included 9596 individuals (28% US Veterans) with median (interquantile range) age of 55 (52–60) years and CD4 count of 336 (182–513) at baseline. The 5-year risk of all-cause mortality was 0.40% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10 to 0.71) lower for the general HIV population and 1.61% (95% CI: 0.79 to 2.67) lower for US Veterans when comparing immediate initiation vs initiation at CD4 <350 cells/mm3. The 5-year risk of non-AIDS mortality was 0.17% (95% CI: −0.07 to 0.43) lower for the general HIV population and 1% (95% CI: 0.31 to 2.00) lower for US Veterans when comparing immediate initiation vs initiation at CD4 <350 cells/mm3.Immediate initiation seems to reduce all-cause and non-AIDS mortality in patients aged 50–70 years.