Randomized trial evaluating the effect of aged garlic extract with supplements versus placebo on adipose tissue surrogates for coronary atherosclerosis progression

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Abstract

Aims

Increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), periaortic adipose tissue (PaAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are mediators of metabolic risk, and are associated with the severity of coronary artery calcium (CAC). Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to reduce the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. This study evaluates the effect of AGE with supplements (AGE+S) on EAT, PAT, SAT, and PaAT.

Methods

Sixty asymptomatic participants participated in a randomized trial evaluating the effect of AGE+S versus placebo on coronary atherosclerosis progression, and underwent CAC at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. EAT, PAT, PaAT, and SAT volumes were measured on CAC scans. PAT was calculated as: intrathoracic adipose tissue–EAT. SAT was defined as the volume of fat depot anterior to the sternum and posterior to the vertebra. PaAT was defined as fat depot around the descending aorta.

Results

At 1 year, the increase in EAT, PAT, PaAT, and SAT was significantly lower in the AGE+S as compared with the placebo group (P<0.05). The odds ratios of increase in EAT, PAT, PaAT, and SAT were 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43–0.90], 0.72 (95% CI: 0.45–0.93), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.65–0.98), and 0.87 (CI: 0.52–0.98), respectively, compared with the placebo group, which even remained significant (all P<0.05) after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and statin therapy and BMI.

Conclusion

This study shows that AGE+S is associated with favorable effects on reducing the progression rate of adipose tissue volumes.

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