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To examine the characteristics of the foveal vascular structure of patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by optical coherence tomography angiography.Ten patients with a history of laser photocoagulation or cryopexy treatment for Stage 3 (Zone ≥ II) ROP and 10 normal subjects (controls) were included. Foveal avascular zone, vessel density, vessel length, and vascular diameter index were measured by optical coherence tomography angiography using the 3 × 3-mm Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) sectors.The median foveal avascular zone values of the patients with ROP and controls were 0.103 mm2 and 0.260 mm2, respectively (P = 0.0025). The medians of the vessel density, vessel length, and vascular diameter index of the patients with ROP were 0.218 mm2/mm2, 11.75 mm/mm2, and 18.00 μm, respectively, in ETDRS Sector 1 and did not significantly differ from those of the controls (P = 0.940, 0.733, and 0.705, respectively). For the average of ETDRS Sectors 2 to 5, the medians of the vessel density, vessel length, and vascular diameter index for the patients with ROP were 0.347 mm2/mm2, 18.95 mm/mm2, and 18.28 μm, respectively; vessel density and vessel length were significantly smaller than those of the controls (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively), but there was no significant difference in vascular diameter index (P = 0.286).Optical coherence tomography angiography–guided foveal avascular zone was significantly smaller in patients with ROP than in controls. Our results indicate that foveal vascular development may be altered in patients with a history of treatment-requiring ROP.