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Interleukin 23 (IL-23) pathway and IL-1 cluster genes play prominent role in the etiopathology of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic role of 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to IL-23 pathway and IL-1 cluster genes in AS patients.Four hundred thirty-one patients with AS and 206 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective cohort study. Five potential single-nucleotide polymorphisms (IL-23R [rs11209026], IL-12B [rs6871626], TYK2 [rs6511701], IL-6R [rs4129267], and IL-1R2 [rs2192752]) related to IL-23 pathway and IL-1 cluster genes by analyzing previous studies were genotyped. Among 431 total AS patients, 198 active cases were treated and followed up for 24 weeks.Frequencies of IL-12B AA (rs6871626) and IL-6R TT (rs4129267) genotypes were increased in AS patients compared with healthy controls (both P < 0.001), and IL-12B A (rs6871626) as well as IL-6R T (rs4129267) allele increased the risk of AS independently (both P < 0.001). The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index score was found to be elevated in AS patients with IL-12B AA (rs6871626) compared with patients with the CA and CC genotypes (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively), and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index score was also increased in AS patents with IL-12B AA (rs6871626) than in those with the CA and CC genotypes (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001). In addition, IL-6R T (rs4129267) allele could predict a worse ASAS-20 (Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society) response at week 24 as an independent factor by multivariate logistic regression analysis with additive model (P = 0.011).Interleukin 12B (rs6871626) and IL-6R (rs4129267) gene polymorphisms could serve as promising biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis in AS patients.