Increasing Prevalence of Pediatric Drug-resistant Tuberculosis in Mumbai, India, and Its Outcome

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Abstract

Background:

The prevalence and type of Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) was evaluated pre- and post-2013, and outcome was studied.

Methods:

Descriptive retrospective study. Children were defined as having DR-TB on the basis of GeneXpert or line probe assay and/or drug susceptibility testing (DST) of M. tuberculosis grown on culture or from contact’s DST.

Results:

The prevalence of DR-TB was 110 of 1145 cases (9.6%), which showed an increase, compared with 5.6% pre-2010 and 7% in 2010–2013 (P = 0.014408). Twenty-two children (20%) had pulmonary-TB and 88 (80%) had extra-pulmonary-TB with disseminated-TB being the most common presentation in 31 children (28.18%). Ninety-six children (87.3%) were bacteriologically confirmed TB cases, and 14 (12.7%) were clinically diagnosed-TB and treated as per contact DST. Eight cases (7.2%) were monoresistant, 7 (6.3%) polyresistant, MDR-TB seen in 28 patients (25.45%), 32 (29.09%) had pre-XDR-TB, 9 (8.18%) had XDR-TB and 12 (10.9%) were rifampicin resistant. Ethionamide resistance increased from 26.1% pre-2013 to 60.8% post-2013 (P = 0.014408) and ofloxacin resistance rose from 30.4% pre-2010, to 47.6% in 2010–2013 and 56.9% post-2013 (P = 0.080863). Moxifloxacin resistance showed an acute rise from 8.7% pre-2010, to 46% in 2010–2013 and 57% post-2013 (P = 0.000275). Thirty-three patients (30%) had completed their treatment, 21 (19.09%) were lost to follow-up and 56 (50.09%) patients are still on treatment.

Conclusions:

DR-TB is increasing in Mumbai, India. Based on the DST results, individualised therapy would be recommended.

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