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Metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) is correlated with prognosis of many tumors. However, little is known about the role of MAT1 in endometriosis and its relationship with the recurrence of endometriosis.The expression of MTA1 in normal, eutopic and ectopic endometrium was detected by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, respectively. The relationship of MTA1 expression with the recurrence of endometriosis was evaluated.In the normal endometrium, eutopic endometrium and ectopic endometrium, the positive rates of MTA1 expression showed a gradually increasing trend. In addition, the MTA1 expression difference between each two groups was significant (P< .0125). However, there was no significant difference between proliferative phase and secretory phase in each group (P> .05). In the ectopic endometrium, MTA1 expression in the severe phases (III-IV) was significantly higher than that in mild phases (I-II) (P< .05), indicating the expression of MTA1 correlates with r-AFS staging (P< .05). Additionally, the MTA1 mRNA level was also closely related to the stages of r-AFS, but not to the proliferative phase or secretory phase of endometrium. Logistic regression analysis showed that r-AFS stage and MTA1 overexpression were risk factors for the recurrence of endometriosis. While, postoperative pregnancy was a protective factor for its relapse.MTA1 is closely associated with the occurrence and development of Ems. Thus, MTA1 level may be used as a new indicator to predict the progression of endometriosis.