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The aim of this study was to provide the most recent evidence on clinical utility of myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) in the management of patients with myositis.In the last few years, several evidences have emerged on the clinical and pathogenetic role of established and novel MSA. Antisynthetase antibodies represent a reliable biomarker for pulmonary involvement also in patients with connective tissue diseases other than myositis. Antisignal recognition particle and antihydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase autoantibodies are able to induce complement-dependent muscle damage. Dermatomyositis-specific antibodies are useful indicators of clinical diversity. The pivotal role of antitranscription intermediary factor 1γ autoimmune response in adult-age paraneoplastic dermatomyositis has been further asserted. AnticN1A and antifour-and-a-half LIM protein 1 antibodies are newly conceived myositis-related antibody specificities, which can contribute to patients’ stratification into more homogeneous groups.Distinct autoantibody-associated clinical phenotypes can be predicted by extended MSA testing in serum. Standardization and validation of MSA laboratory detection methods is strongly recommended for better supporting myositis diagnosis, management and prognosis definition.