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To estimate the effect of ultrasound screening on stage at detection and long-term disease-specific survival of at-risk women with epithelial ovarian cancer.Eligibility included all asymptomatic women 50 years of age or older and women 25 years of age or older with a documented family history of ovarian cancer. From 1987 to 2017, 46,101 women received annual ultrasound screening in a prospective cohort trial. Women with a persisting abnormal screen underwent tumor morphology indexing, serum biomarker analysis, and surgery.Seventy-one invasive epithelial ovarian cancers and 17 epithelial ovarian tumors of low malignant potential were detected. No women with a low malignant potential tumor experienced recurrent disease. Stage distribution for screen-detected invasive epithelial ovarian cancers was stage I—30 (42%), stage II—15 (21%), stage III—26 (37%), and stage IV—0 (0%). Follow-up varied from 9.2 months to 27 years (mean 7.9 years). Disease-specific survival at 5, 10, and 20 years for women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer detected by screening was 86±4%, 68±7%, and 65±7%, respectively, vs 45±2%, 31±2%, and 19±3%, respectively, for unscreened women with clinically detected ovarian cancer from the same geographic area who were treated at the same institution by the same treatment protocols (P<.001). Twenty-seven percent of screen-detected malignancies were type I and 73% were type II. The disease-specific survival of women with type I and type II screen-detected tumors was significantly higher than that of women with clinically detected type I and type II tumors and was related directly to earlier stage at detection.Annual ultrasound screening of at-risk asymptomatic women was associated with lower stage at detection and increased 5-, 10-, and 20-year disease-specific survival of women with both type I and type II epithelial ovarian cancer.OnCore Clinical Trials Management System, NCI-2013-01954.