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To evaluate clinical outcomes of using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) with implant based breast reconstructions (IBBRs) in a randomized controlled trial.The use of ADMs in IBBRs is widespread, but link between ADM and complications remain a controversial topic. In view of reports concerning harm, we present 6-months safety data of ADM-assisted IBBR in the setting of breast cancer treatment.An open-label, randomized, controlled trial recruiting patients from 4 centers in Sweden and 1 in UK. Eligible were women with breast cancer planned for mastectomy with immediate IBBR. Participants were randomly allocated to IBBR with or without ADM (Strattice, Branchburg, NJ), with stratification by center in blocks of 6. Main primary endpoint was number of unplanned reoperations at 24 months, and safety expressed as the incidence of adverse events with a 6-month follow-up time for all participants. Analysis were done per protocol using Fisher exact test for complications and reoperations.From start of enrolment on April 24, 2014, to close of trial on May 10, 2017, 135 women were enrolled, of whom 64 with ADM and 65 without ADM were included in the final analysis. Four patients (6%) in each group had reconstructive failure with implant loss, but IBBR with ADM exhibited a trend of more overall complications and reoperations (difference 0·16, 95% CI, −0·01 to 0·32, P = 0·070), and with higher risk of wound healing problems (P = 0·013).With 6-months follow-up for all participants, immediate IBBR with ADM carried a risk of implant loss equal to conventional IBBR without ADM, but was associated with more adverse outcomes requiring surgical intervention. Further investigation of risk factors and patient selection in a long-term follow-up is warranted.