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We conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study to determine whether a psychoeducational intervention for patients undergoing screening mammography could influence the level of anxiety related to the procedure. Fifty women undergoing mammography for the first time were included in the study and randomized to two groups. In the study group, patients received a psychoeducational session before mammography. In the control group, psychoeducation was not applied. To evaluate the level of anxiety, we used the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. State Anxiety Scale (S-Anxiety) score and Trait Anxiety Scale (T-Anxiety) scores were assessed before and after mammography in both groups. After evaluating the S-Anxiety score in the study group before mammography and after the procedure, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.043) was observed. In contrast, no statistically significant changes were noticed in the control group (p = 0.886). Our study showed that psychoeducation reduced state anxiety among the participants of a breast cancer screening.