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Vascular injury is increasingly recognized as an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children (29 days to 18 years of age). Since vascular brain injury in children appears to be less common than in adults, the index of suspicion for vascular brain injury is usually lower. In this review article, we describe frequent and rare conditions underlying pediatric stroke including cardioembolic, viral, autoimmune, post-traumatic, and genetic etiologies. Furthermore, we provide a neuroimaging correlate for clinical mimics of pediatric stroke. This review highlights the role of multimodal noninvasive neuroimaging in the early diagnosis of pediatric stroke, providing a problem-solving approach to the differential diagnosis for the neuroradiologist, emergency room physician, and neurologist.