1 Surgical Outcomes Research Centre (SOuRCe), Sydney Local Health District, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia2 Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Institute of Academic Surgery, Sydney, Australia3 Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia4 The Institute of Academic Surgery - RPA, Camperdown, Australia
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BACKGROUND:Ischiorectal fossa tumors are rare.OBJECTIVE:This study reviews a single institution’s series of ischiorectal tumors with comparison against presacral tumors and assesses the utility of preoperative biopsy and angioembolization.DESIGN:This is a retrospective study.SETTINGS:This study was conducted at a quaternary referral center.PATIENTS:All patients with ischiorectal tumor treated between February 1995 and April 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Tumors extending secondarily into the ischiorectal fossa and inflammatory pathologies were excluded.INTERVENTIONS:Preoperative biopsy, neoadjuvant therapy, angioembolization, and surgical excision of these tumors were reviewed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Demographic, perioperative, pathological, and oncologic outcomes were evaluated.RESULTS:Twenty-four patients (15 female; median age 54) were identified. Two-thirds were symptomatic. Forty-six percent had a palpable mass. All patients had CT and/or MRI. Fifty percent had a preoperative biopsy, of which 83% were diagnostic, and management was altered in 50%. All patients underwent surgical excision. Fifty-five percent had local excision, 38% had radical pelvic excision, and 8% had total mesorectal excision. Two patients had preoperative angioembolization. Both had successful R0 local excision. Morbidity occurred in 25%, with 1 major complication. There was no 30-day mortality. Histopathology demonstrated 17 soft tissue tumors (3 malignant), 2 GI stromal tumors, 1 neuroendocrine tumor, 1 Merkel cell carcinoma, 1 basaloid carcinoma, 1 epidermal cyst, and 1 lipoma. R0 resection was achieved in 75%. All patients were alive after a median follow-up of 33 months. Four patients developed recurrence at a median 10 months postoperatively. All recurrences were malignant, and 75% had had a R1 resection.LIMITATIONS:This study is limited by its small numbers. The quaternary institution source may introduce bias.CONCLUSIONS:Ischiorectal fossa tumors are heterogeneous and more likely to be malignant than presacral tumors. Biopsy can be useful if a malignant diagnosis is suspected and changes management in 50% of cases. Preoperative embolization may be useful for large vascular tumors. R0 resection is important to minimize recurrence. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A779.