Tumors of the Ischiorectal Fossa: A Single-Institution Experience

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BACKGROUND:Ischiorectal fossa tumors are rare.OBJECTIVE:This study reviews a single institution’s series of ischiorectal tumors with comparison against presacral tumors and assesses the utility of preoperative biopsy and angioembolization.DESIGN:This is a retrospective study.SETTINGS:This study was conducted at a quaternary referral center.PATIENTS:All patients with ischiorectal tumor treated between February 1995 and April 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Tumors extending secondarily into the ischiorectal fossa and inflammatory pathologies were excluded.INTERVENTIONS:Preoperative biopsy, neoadjuvant therapy, angioembolization, and surgical excision of these tumors were reviewed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Demographic, perioperative, pathological, and oncologic outcomes were evaluated.RESULTS:Twenty-four patients (15 female; median age 54) were identified. Two-thirds were symptomatic. Forty-six percent had a palpable mass. All patients had CT and/or MRI. Fifty percent had a preoperative biopsy, of which 83% were diagnostic, and management was altered in 50%. All patients underwent surgical excision. Fifty-five percent had local excision, 38% had radical pelvic excision, and 8% had total mesorectal excision. Two patients had preoperative angioembolization. Both had successful R0 local excision. Morbidity occurred in 25%, with 1 major complication. There was no 30-day mortality. Histopathology demonstrated 17 soft tissue tumors (3 malignant), 2 GI stromal tumors, 1 neuroendocrine tumor, 1 Merkel cell carcinoma, 1 basaloid carcinoma, 1 epidermal cyst, and 1 lipoma. R0 resection was achieved in 75%. All patients were alive after a median follow-up of 33 months. Four patients developed recurrence at a median 10 months postoperatively. All recurrences were malignant, and 75% had had a R1 resection.LIMITATIONS:This study is limited by its small numbers. The quaternary institution source may introduce bias.CONCLUSIONS:Ischiorectal fossa tumors are heterogeneous and more likely to be malignant than presacral tumors. Biopsy can be useful if a malignant diagnosis is suspected and changes management in 50% of cases. Preoperative embolization may be useful for large vascular tumors. R0 resection is important to minimize recurrence. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A779.

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