Liver heterotopia associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: Two case reports and a review of the literature


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Abstract

Rationale:Liver heterotopia associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare condition; to the best of our knowledge, only 17 cases have been reported to date. The histogenesis and clinicopathological features are largely unknown. We herein report 2 cases of liver heterotopia associated with CDH along with 17 cases described in the literature to shed light on their clinicopathological characteristics.Patient concerns:Case 1 was a vaginally delivered male newborn who presented with respiratory distress immediately after birth. Case 2 was a female fetus who was found to have left-sided CDH during gestation.Diagnosis:In case 1, a chest X-ray revealed left-sided CDH. In case 2, magnetic resonance imaging performed at 33 weeks of gestation revealed left-sided CDH.Interventions:Case 1 underwent diaphragmatic patch repair surgery 3 days after birth. Histopathological examination following surgery in case 1 revealed the presence of ectopic liver tissue in the hernia sac. Case 2 was delivered by Cesarean section, and diaphragmatic patch surgery was performed 3 days after birth. During surgery, an isolated nodule was identified on the peritoneal side of the border of the defective foramen of the diaphragm. Histopathological examination following surgery in case 2 confirmed the presence of an epidermal cyst in the hernia sac. In addition, the isolated nodule was histopathologically found to be ectopic liver tissue.Outcomes:In Case 1, CDH recurred at 6 months after surgery, and a second patch repair surgery was performed. The surgically removed hernia sac was found to contain microscopic ectopic liver tissue on histopathology. Case 1 recovered well after surgery, and there was no critical change during the 10-month postoperative period. Case 2 recovered well after surgery, and there was no critical change during the 20-month postoperative period.Lessons:There were no secondary pathological conditions associated with the presence of ectopic liver in CDH, such as torsion, infarction, rupture, intra-abdominal bleeding, or tumorization. Our observations suggest that liver heterotopia is a rare but asymptomatic condition in patients with CDH.

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