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Pulmonary carcinoids (PC) are histologically classified into typical carcinoid (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC). The diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoid and possibly the differentiation between TC and AC could make a significant effect on the treatment planning as well as prognosis. Several studies have explored the utility of 68Ga-DOTA-Peptide (68Ga-labelled [1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]-peptide) and 18F-flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of primary pulmonary carcinoids. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and prediction efficiency of histological subtypes of these two imaging modalities in primary PC.Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE published from 2006 to 2016. Two authors extracted characteristics of patients and their lesions using predefined criteria.Fourteen studies comprising 352 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of 68Ga-DOTA-Peptide and 18F-FDG PET/CT in detecting pulmonary carcinoid were 90.0% (95% CI = 82.0–95.0%; P = .07; I2 = 49.6%) and 71.0% (95% CI = 66.0–76.0%; P < .001; I2 = 59.3%), respectively. An SUVmax ratio between 68Ga-DOTA-Peptide and 18F-FDG higher than the cutoff value of 4.28 was predictive of TC with 89.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity (AUC, 96.4%; 95% CI, 91.1–100%). The ratio of tumor uptake to atelectatic lung uptake was significantly higher for 68Ga-DOTA-peptide (2.5–91, mean 30.5 ± 28.1) than for 18F-FDG (0.3–10.3, mean 2.1 ± 2.3) (P < .001).Both 68Ga-DOTA-peptide and 18F-FDG are highly sensitive in detecting pulmonary carcinoid, while 68Ga-DOTA-peptide is more sensitive than 18F-FDG (90.0% vs 71.0%). The SUVmax ratio was an accurate predictor of the histopathologic variety of the carcinoid tumor, and 68Ga-DOTA-peptide was better than 18F-FDG in cases with atelectasis.