Incidental finding of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient affected by castration-sensitive prostate cancer: A case report

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Rationale:This article describes the case of a patient with 2 simultaneous malignant diseases: Follicular lymphoma and ‘castration sensitive prostate cancer. Patients with multiple cancers are not easy to manage and it is difficult to find the appropriate approach and resources to use with them. We focused our attention on how to choose the correct strategy to face 2 different neoplasms and control the adverse reactions related to the corresponding treatments.Patient concerns:We present a case of a 71-year-old man who came to us complaining about an abnormal difficulty in urinating associated with an interrupted flow and excessive urination at night. Clinical examination detected multiple enlarged superior and inferior diaphragmatic lymph nodes.Diagnosis:Prostate biopsy revealed an acinar adenocarcinoma (Gleason 4+3, Grade group 3). Clinical staging by bone scan was negative but computed tomography scan (CT) detected multiple enlarged superior and inferior diaphragmatic, and inguinal lymph nodes. This type of lymph node involvement pattern is unusual for an acinar adenocarcinoma prostate cancer therefore we suspected the simultaneous presence of a lymphatic neoplasm. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan. The exam showed one of the left inguinal lymph nodes had the highest standardized uptake value (13.0) so a biopsy was taken. The sample analysis confirmed the diagnosis of a follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma of Grade 3a.Interventions:We used a multidisciplinary clinical approach based on Rituximab+CHOP administered every 21 days. Simultaneously, the patient underwent androgen deprivation therapy with triptorelin monthly and bicalutamide administered just during the first month of treatment. When we obtained a complete response for the lymphoma, the patient continued the therapy with Rituximab once every 2 months for the next 2 years. Then we added volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to androgen deprivation therapy for the duration of 1 month.Outcomes:After 1 year and 6 months since the conclusion of therapy for prostate cancer and Follicular lymphoma, patient's conditions are good and he is in complete remission for both diseases. Gut toxicity is reduced with a mean number of 2 to 3 discharges daily and an increased body weight.Lessons:The presence of diffuse lymphadenopathy and urinary symptoms in the same patients must induce the suspect of 2 contemporary cancer diseases. Parallel treatments of follicular lymphoma and prostate cancer should consider the increased risk of severe adverse effects related to the treatment and their management. We describe our therapeutic strategy to highlight the importance to balance benefits and disadvantages to get the best possible response and maintain a good quality of life in this complex setting.

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