Changing rates in fracture trends are temporally associated with declining testing and treatment: reality or ecologic fallacy?


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Abstract

Purpose of reviewThe changing patterns of osteoporosis treatment and fragility fractures have led to what leaders are calling a ‘crisis in the osteoporosis.’ We address data on changing patterns in fractures, and highlight strengths and limitations of recently published data.Recent findingsDeclines in hip fracture rates have been shown in studies from around the world. However, recently, using national Medicare data, Michael Lewiecki and colleagues show a plateau in the decline of hip fracture incidence in the United States from 2012 to 2015. Population-based data is integral for evaluating temporal trends; however, researchers must consider the biases associated with them including: age effects, period effects, and cohort effects. Rosengren and colleagues conducted the most comprehensive evaluation of age, period, and birth cohort effects in their study of hip fracture trends from 1987 to 2010 in Denmark and Sweden, in which they identified changes in hip fracture rates based on age, period, and cohort effects.SummaryRecent findings show clear temporal trends in changing fracture rates. Studies, which evaluated these biases largely attribute increased hip fracture rates to various age, period, and cohort effects, highlighting the importance of appropriate screening and treatment.

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