Risk of Mortality and Hospitalization After Post-Pancreatitis Diabetes Mellitus vs Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Matched Cohort Study

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Objectives:To investigate the risk of mortality and hospitalization in individuals with post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus (PPDM) compared with those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods:Using nationwide hospital discharge data on pancreatitis and diabetes in New Zealand (n = 231,943), a total of 959 individuals with PPDM were identified. For each individual with PPDM, 10 age- and sex-matched individuals with T2DM were randomly selected. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was conducted, and the risk was expressed as hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).Results:A total of 3,867 deaths occurred among 10,549 study individuals. Individuals with PPDM had all-cause mortality rate at 80.5 (95% CI, 70.3–90.6) per 1,000 person-years, which was higher compared with T2DM individuals (adjusted HR, 1.13 (95% CI, 1.00–1.29); absolute excess risk, 14.8 (95% CI, 4.5–25.2) per 1,000 person-years). Compared with T2DM, PPDM was associated with higher risks of mortality from cancer (adjusted HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.13–1.83), infectious disease (adjusted HR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.69–3.77), and gastrointestinal disease (adjusted HR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.64–4.01). Individuals with PPDM vs T2DM were also at significantly higher risks of hospitalization for chronic pulmonary disease, moderate to severe renal disease, and infectious disease.Conclusions:Individuals with PPDM have higher risk of mortality and hospitalization compared with individuals with T2DM. Guidelines for management of PPDM need to be developed with a view to preventing excess deaths and hospitalizations in individuals with PPDM.

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