Risk factors for lymph node metastasis in duodenal neuroendocrine tumors: A retrospective, single-center study

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Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare, and risk factors associated with lymph node (LN) metastasis are still not well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors of LN metastasis in duodenal NETs based on the final histopathologic results and clinical follow-up data.This study included a total of 44 duodenal NETs in 38 patients who underwent endoscopic or surgical resection between January 2008 and December 2015. Diagnosis of duodenal NETs was confirmed based on immunohistochemical staining of chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56; the clinicopathologic records were collected at the time of the initial diagnosis of duodenal NETs.Most duodenal NETs were small (≤1 cm in 33 tumors), World Health Organization (WHO) grade G1 (in 32 tumors), limited to the mucosa and/or submucosa (in 40 tumors), and located at the duodenal bulb (in 32 tumors). Of 44 tumors, lymphovascular invasion was present in 4 (9.1%), and among 38 patients, LN metastasis was detected in 4 (10.5%). LN metastases were significantly associated with the non-bulb location, tumor size >10 mm, tumor invasion into the muscularis propria or deeper, WHO grade G2, and lymphovascular invasion. During the mean follow-up period of 54.5 months (range, 24–123 months), recurrence occurred in 1 patient.Non-bulb location, tumor size >10 mm, invasion beyond the submucosa, WHO grade G2, and lymphovascular invasion are risk factors of LN metastasis in duodenal NETs. These findings can help clinicians choose the appropriate therapeutic modality for duodenal NETs.

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