Optic disk hemorrhage and vitreous hemorrhage after phacoemulsification in a normal tension glaucoma patient: A case report


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Abstract

Rationale:Optic disk hemorrhage has been closely correlated with glaucoma for its development and progression. Phacoemulsification surgery results in large intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation. We report a case of optic disk hemorrhage and consequently progressive vitreous hemorrhage after an unsuccessful phacoemulsification surgery in an advanced normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patient.Patient concerns:An advanced NTG patient of 82 years old with chronic hypertension underwent an unsuccessful phacoemulsification surgery complicated by posterior capsule rupture. During the postoperative 2 weeks, recurrent episodes of fresh hyphema occurred and B ultrasonography scan revealed the progressive vitreous hemorrhage. The IOP went out of control under the maximum tolerable IOP-lowering medications.Diagnosis:Vitreous hemorrhage after phacoemulsification in an advanced NTG patient.Interventions:Vitrectomy was performed to search for the cause of the progressive vitreous hemorrhage. After removal of the thick vitreous hemorrhage, a fresh spot of optic disk hemorrhage was detected at the nasal margin of the significantly-cupping disk.Outcomes:Postoperatively, the hemorrhagic vitreous opacity gradually resolved and the IOP remained stable at 10 ∼13 mmHg with topical prostaglandin analogue drops. Fundus examination revealed the dilated disk vessel with localized angiomatous change at the nasal disk margin.Lessons:Severe optic disk hemorrhage may occur after phacoemulsification in advanced glaucoma patients. Systemic vascular factors, such as chronic hypertension and old age, and surgical complications, such as posterior capsule rupture and postoperative IOP elevation, would further increase the risk. For phacoemulsification in advanced glaucoma cases, extra care should be taken to control intraoperative IOP fluctuations and monitor postoperative IOP.

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