Improving Outcomes of Bariatric Surgery in Patients With Cirrhosis in the United States: A Nationwide Assessment

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INTRODUCTION:With increasing burden of obesity and liver disease in the United States, a better understanding of bariatric surgery in context of cirrhosis is needed. We described trends of hospital-based outcomes of bariatric surgery among cirrhotics and determined effect of volume status and type of surgery on these outcomes.METHODS:In this population-based study, admissions for bariatric surgery were extracted from the National Inpatient Sample using International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes from 2004 to 2016 and grouped by cirrhosis status, type of bariatric surgery, and center volume. In-hospital mortality, complications, and their trends were compared between these groups using weighted counts, odds ratios [ORs], and logistic regression.RESULTS:Among 1,679,828 admissions for bariatric surgery, 9,802 (0.58%) had cirrhosis. Cirrhosis admissions were more likely to be in white men, had higher Elixhauser Index, and higher in-hospital complications rates including death (1.81% vs 0.17%), acute kidney injury (4.5% vs 1.2%), bleeding (2.9% vs 1.1%), and operative complications (2% vs 0.6%) (P < 0.001 for all) compared to those without cirrhosis. Overtime, restrictive surgeries have grown in number (12%–71%) and complications rates have trended down in both groups. Cirrhotics undergoing bariatric surgery at low-volume centers (<50 procedures per year) and nonrestrictive surgery had a higher inpatient mortality rate (adjusted OR 4.50, 95% confidence interval 3.14–6.45, adjusted OR 4.00, 95% confidence interval 2.68–5.97, respectively).DISCUSSION:Contemporary data indicate that among admissions for bariatric surgery, there is a shift to restrictive-type surgeries with an improvement in-hospital complications and mortality. However, patients with cirrhosis especially those at low-volume centers have significantly higher risk of worse outcomes (see Visual abstract, Supplementary Digital Content,

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