Survival of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis on chronic dialysis: data from the French REIN registry from 2002 to 2011

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Background: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) can lead to end-stage renal disease in patients with renal involvement.

Objective: This study evaluated the survival of AAV patients on chronic dialysis in France.

Methods: Between 2002 and 2011, a total of 425 AAV patients started chronic dialysis and were registered in the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network. We analysed survival censored for renal transplantation, recovery of renal function and loss to follow-up. AAV patients were compared with 794 matched non-AAV patients on chronic dialysis.

Results: A total of 166 (39%) patients with microscopic polyangiitis and 259 (61%) patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis were registered. Within a median follow-up of 23 months, 58 (14%) patients received a renal allograft and 19 (4%) recovered renal function. Median survival on dialysis was 5.35 years (95% CI, 4.4–6.3) and survival rates at 3 months, 1, 3 and 5 years were 96%, 85%, 68% and 53%, respectively. A total of 143 (41%) patients died after a median of 16 months. Causes of death were cardiovascular (29%), infections (20%), malnutrition (13%), malignancies (4%), AAV relapse (2%), miscellaneous (14%) and unknown (18%). Multivariate logistic regression identified three independent risk factors associated with AAV patients’ mortality: age (HR = 1.05/year, P < 0.001), peripheral artery disease (HR = 2.62, P = 0.003) and frailty (HR = 2.43, P < 0.001). Survival of AAV patients did not differ from non-AAV controls, but infectious mortality was higher in AAV patients (20% vs. 8%, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Survival of AAV patients in chronic dialysis, although poor, was comparable to survival of non-AAV controls on dialysis. There was a similar burden of cardiovascular mortality, but higher infectious mortality.

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