Normal fasting plasma glucose predicts type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in elderly population in Taiwan

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Abstract

Background: Hyperglycemia increases prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). But the role of normoglycemia on the development of T2D and CVD in elderly population remains unclear.

Aim: To determine an optimal cut-off for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to predict MetS and subsequent risk of T2D and CVD in an elderly Taiwanese population with normal FPG levels.

Design: Two stages included cross-sectional (Stage 1) and prospective (Stage 2) cohort study.

Methods: In Stage 1 18 287 subjects aged  ≥60 years were enrolled; of these, 5039 without T2D and CVD advanced to Stage 2 and a mean follow-up of 3.8 years. MetS components were analysed, and in Stage 1, FPG cut-offs for MetS risk were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. In Stage 2, subjects without T2D and CVD in Stage 1 were classified into high-FPG and low-FPG groups based on cut-offs, and sex specific differences in incidence for T2D and CVD were calculated.

Results: ROC curve analysis gave an optimal FPG cut-off for MetS of 93 mg/dl and 92 mg/dl for males and females, respectively. The high-FPG group had a 1.599- and 1.353-fold higher chance of developing T2D compared with the low-FPG group for males and females, respectively (95% CI: 1.606–2.721 and 1.000–1.831, P  =  0.015 and 0.05). The high-FPG group had a 1.24-fold higher chance of developing CVD for females (95% CI: 1.015–1.515, P  =  0.035); however, there was no difference for males.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that FPG within the normal range was associated with MetS, and elderly subjects with high normal levels have a higher incidence of developing T2D for both sexes, and CVD for females, over the short-term.

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