The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) on the visualisation of anatomical structures and diagnostic image quality in paediatric cerebral computed tomography (CT) examinations. Forty paediatric patients undergoing routine cerebral CT were included in the study. The raw data from CT scans were reconstructed into stacks of 5 mm thick axial images at various levels of ASiR. Three paediatric radiologists rated six questions related to the visualisation of anatomical structures and one question on diagnostic image quality, in a blinded randomised visual grading study. The evaluated anatomical structures demonstrated enhanced visibility with increasing level of ASiR, apart from the cerebrospinal fluid space around the brain. In this study, 60 % ASiR was found to be the optimal level of ASiR for paediatric cerebral CT examinations. This shows that the commonly used 30 % ASiR may not always be the optimal level.