This study aimed to investigate the growth rate of 31 consecutive invasive breast cancers based on volume measures on at least two serial mammograms and its relation to histopathological findings. The average tumour volume-doubling time in all invasive breast cancer subtypes was 282 d (range 46–749 d). Grade III breast cancers had a significantly shorter average tumour volume-doubling time of 105 d (range 46–157 d) compared with Grade I and II tumours (average of 296 d, range 147–531 d and average of 353 d, range 139–749 d, respectively) (p = 0.002). Multiple linear regression identified that tumour volume-doubling time was positively associated with patient age, histological grade and progesterone receptor expression and inversely associated with axillary lymph node involvement, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and Ki-67 expression (p < 0.001). In conclusion, tumour volume-doubling time as estimated on serial mammography may provide important prognostic information relevant for clinical decision-making.