Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have the potential to enhance the radiation dose locally in conjunction with kV X-rays used for radiation therapy. As for other radiotherapy modalities, the absorbed dose needs to be controlled. To do that, it is an advantage to know the distribution of GNPs. However, no effective imaging tool exists to determine the GNP distribution in vivo. Various approaches have been proposed to determine the concentration of GNPs and its distribution in a tumour and in other organs and tissues. X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) is a promising imaging technique to do that. A new experimental device based on the XFCT technique allowing the in vivo control of GNP radiotherapy treatments is proposed. As a test of concept, experimental acquisitions and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the performance that a XFCT detector has to fulfil.