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Many patients may experience signs and symptoms of neuropathy during oncology treatment. One source of issues may be common peroneal neuropathy.To evaluate the incidence of common peroneal neuropathy among cancer survivors and identify factors that may predispose a patient to this complication.Electronic databases PubMed, PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were systematically searched from January 2007 to March 2017. All types of studies, data collections, and review articles were included in the adult population. Because of the limited data available on this topic, articles were not excluded on quality.Nine articles describing peroneal neuropathy in the oncology population were included in the review. Two of the studies analyzed patient-specific data regarding patients presenting with peroneal neuropathy, 3 were case study reports, and 4 articles were written as review articles. Data were presented on the common factors that have been identified in this group.Limited data is available on the occurrence of common peroneal neuropathy in the oncology population. More research is needed to draw better conclusions.Current information on the incidence of common peroneal neuropathy in cancer survivors has not been established. Although several mechanisms predisposing a patient to issues with nerve transmission may exist, the primary common factor identified in the occurrence of peroneal neuropathy in the oncology population in this review was weight loss related to a decrease in adipose tissue protecting the common peroneal nerve at the fibular head. Further support was given for compression due to leg crossing. Identification of these risk factors may assist the clinician to help prevent this problem.