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Prostatic diseases account for 3–10% of intact male dogs presented to veterinary surgeons. Conditions vary according to severity and frequency ranging from the most common, such as prostatic hyperplasia and cysts to the rarer conditions such as prostatic abcesses and neoplasia. Different causes of prostatic disease can often not be distinguished by evaluation of clinical signs, as these are not very distinctive and may be similar for many prostatic conditions. Understanding which additional diagnostic tools to use for each of the possible conditions is essential in making a correct diagnosis leading to the proper treatment. This article will discuss the different etiologies, age groups of dogs and the decision-making process which will help the practitioner to choose the right investigative tools, treatments and prognosis when dealing with prostatic disease.