|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The two most frequent prostatic diseases in dogs are benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatitis. Prostatitis requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. In acute prostatitis, the blood–prostate barrier is broken, thus facilitating the penetration of antibiotics, whereas in chronic prostatitis, the barrier prevents the penetration of many drugs into the gland. The selection of antibiotic agents is based on the sensitivity test and the drug's ability to penetrate into the gland. Many protocols for the treatment of BPH are available. In non-breeding dogs, surgical and optionally pharmacological castration by means of GnRH agonists may be performed. In breeding dogs, drugs retaining fertility are used. Recently, androgen receptor antagonistic treatment with osaterone acetate has been applied. Other drugs used for BPH treatment include progestagens, oestrogens, antioestrogens and 5α-reductase inhibitors. Some of these compounds may provoke severe side effects. The efficiency of GnRH antagonists used for the treatment of prostatic diseases, such as neoplasia and BPH, in humans has been recently investigated in dogs. This androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is devoid of an initial exacerbation of androgen-dependent symptoms, which is typical for GnRH agonistic treatment. In many cases, BPH and prostatitis must be treated simultaneously as these conditions may develop in combination.