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The aims of this study were to evaluate the localization, by immunohistochemistry, of the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in goat ovaries and to investigate its effects on the in vitro survival and development of caprine pre-antral follicles enclosed in fragments of ovarian tissue. Pre-antral follicles were cultured in vitro for 1 or 7 days in α-MEM+ in the absence or presence of kit ligand (KL; 50 ng/ml, positive control) or AMH (50 or 150 ng/ml). The results showed that AMH was localized in oocytes and granulosa cells from the primordial follicle to antral follicle stages. Addition of AMH maintained the percentage of developing follicles, similar to that in the uncultured control; however, the percentage of developing follicles was significantly lower than that in the cultured control and KL. Nonetheless, addition of AMH to the culture medium did not affect survival rates and follicular growth. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the expression of AMH varies according to the compartment and stage of follicular development. Furthermore, AMH inhibits the activation of caprine primordial follicles.