Two male adults, one mildly and one moderately retarded, were trained to give attention contingent upon on-task behaviors of retarded individuals in a sheltered workshop. Data were collected on the subjects' interactions with the residents during three production tasks. The training program consisted of instructions, a self-recording system, and verbal praise in which the subjects were taught to record on a wrist counter each interaction with the resident following on-task behavior. As demonstrated in a multiple-baseline design across tasks and subjects, the frequency of the subjects' interactions with the clients engaged in on-task behaviors increased sharply as a function of the training program, while the frequency of interactions following off-task behavior of clients was unchanged. The potential value of this type of training as an additional component to program packages for increasing work rates of retarded clients in rehabilitation settings was discussed.