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To explore metamemory (memory beliefs) and affective functioning in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI).Twenty-six individuals with mild TBI (MTBI), 16 individuals with severe TBI (STBI), and 42 uninjured adults.Metamemory in Adulthood questionnaire, Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist, Perceived Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.), Beck Anxiety Inventory.The control group endorsed higher memory self-efficacy, fewer depressive symptoms, fewer memory strategies, and fewer postconcussion symptoms than the MTBI or STBI group. The MTBI group placed high importance on success in memory tasks. Memory self-efficacy and memory-strategies use mediated the relation between TBI and depression.Individuals with brain injury hold negative beliefs about their memory functioning, and such beliefs contribute to depression.