To adapt and test P. M. Lewinsohn, H. M. Hoberman, L. Teri, and M. Hautzinger's (1985) integrative model of depression for individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain.Design
Structural equation modeling.Participants
Individuals with chronic pain (N = 171), recruited from 6 outpatient rehabilitation facilities in Canada.Outcome Measures
Two measures of the latent variable, depression (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale), along with multiple measures of each of 5 latent predictors (pain, interferences, stress, coping, and social and family support) and 2 measured predictors (preinjury psychopathology and catastrophizing).Results
The normed fit index, comparative fit index, and parsimony ratio indicated an adequate fit for the model, suggesting that stress, perceived severity of pain, activity interferences, and catastrophizing contributed to increased depression (vulnerabilities), whereas pain coping skills and social and family support contributed to decreased depression (immunities).Conclusions
Empirical support was found for the proposed model of depression for people with chronic musculoskeletal pain, and the model appears to provide useful information for clinical rehabilitation interventions.